The Regional Authority Index (RAI) is a measure of the authority of regional governments in 81 democracies or quasi-democracies on an annual basis over the period 1950-2010. The dataset encompasses subnational government levels with an average population of 150,000 or more. Where appropriate, we code more than one regional tier, and code separately regions with a special autonomous statute or asymmetrical arrangements. Regional authority is measured along ten dimensions: institutional depth, policy scope, fiscal autonomy, borrowing autonomy, representation, law making, executive control, fiscal control, borrowing control, and constitutional reform. Primary sources (constitutions, legislation, statutes) are triangulated with secondary literature and consultation of country experts to achieve reliable and valid estimates. A regional data set contains annual scores for regional governments or tiers and a country data set aggregates these scores to the country level. More information on the Regional Authority Index can be found on the project's website.

Region scores: [excel] [codebook]

Country scores: [excel] [codebook]

Calculation country scores: [Latin-America] [OECD] [South and Eastern Asia]


Hooghe, Liesbet, Gary Marks, Arjan H. Schakel, Sandra Chapman-Osterkatz, Sara Niedzwiecki, and Sarah Shair-Rosenfield (2016) Measuring regional authority. Volume I: a postfunctionalist theory of governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [link]

An intermediate update was conducted for the European Commission with RAI-scores for forty-five countries for 2010-2016. You can download the [final report], [RAI_2018_country_scores], and [RAI_2018_region_scores]. Please note that these updated scores are not verified and many scores will be different in the update which will be released in Fall 2020. The intermediate update is made available because of a high demand but I advise you to use the 1950-2010 scores or to wait for the update in Fall 2020.

Prior Work

Hooghe, Liesbet, Marks, Gary and Schakel, Arjan H. (2010) The rise of regional authority: a comparative study of 42 countries, London: Routledge. [link]

Hooghe, Liesbet, Gary Marks and Arjan H. Schakel (2008) 'Regional authority in 42 democracies, 1950-2006: A measure and five hypotheses,' Regional & Federal Studies 18 (2-3): 111-302. [link]