Regional and National Elections in Europe:
Territoriality of the Vote in Twenty-Three Countries


Together with Régis Dandoy I have edited a book on regional and national elections in thirteen Western European countries (Palgrave Macmillan 2013) and I have edited a book on regional and national elections in ten Eastern European countries (forthcoming with Palgrave Macmillan in January 2017). The books challenge the common practice of using the second-order election model in regional election research. The second-order election model assumes that regional elections are subordinate to first-order national elections which implies that regional election results are (highly) dependent on politics in the first-order arena. The main contribution of the books is to explore the conditions under which regional elections obtain or lose second-order election characteristics. The research strategy consists of presenting in depth country studies which adopt a common framework with regard to the central research question and the dependent variables. The aim of both books is to come up with possible 'bottom-up' variables (inductive approach) which may explain regional election results alongside or instead of the traditional 'top-down' (deductive) approach of the second-order election model. More in detail, the project concerns the analysis of regional election results in twenty-three European countries for the period 1945 until 2015. We have asked country experts to reflect upon regional voting patterns for national and regional elections in their respective countries.

The books are published in the Comparative Territorial Politics series by Palgrave Macmillan. Below you will find a table which details which countries are covered and which authors have written the country chapters. Each country chapter is accompanied by a country excel data file which provides pre-formatted data on the five central dependent variables of the book: congruence between national and regional elections, congruence between national and regional governments, turnout in national and regional elections, vote share swings between national and regional elections, and regionalist party strength in national and regional elections. The country data files will provide an indispensable source for scholars and practitioners who would like to get additional and specific information for particular regions or parties. The excel data files are especially designed for scholars, students and practitioners who are not used to work with raw and large data files but who have some basic skills with Microsoft Office software.


Reviews from the book on Western Europe

"Elections at the subnational level have so far often been looked at through the lenses of methodological nationalism. That includes the assumption that they are 'second order' and thus only to be understood for their meaning at the statewide level. This collection does a great job analyzing carefully and systematically substate electoral dynamics on their own terms. The result is a must-read, a truly 'first order' book."

Kris Deschouwer, Department of Political Science, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

"A most welcome study on the interplay of regional and national elections. The comparative volume combines the advantages of a clear and comprehensive analytical framework with the richness of in-depth country chapters. The book explores the diversity of regional electoral behavior but it also finds common factors that are at play in many political systems in Western Europe."

Klaus Detterbeck, Department of Political Science, University of Magdeburg, Germany

"This stimulating volume provides a comprehensive survey of the diversity and distinctiveness of regional elections across western Europe. Beyond this, it opens our eyes to regional elections as a core subject of comparative politics that repays serious study. This volume is a tour de force in transcending methodological nationalism."

Gary Marks, Department of Political Science, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, USA and Department of Political Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands

"Together with a team of first-rate scholars, Dandoy and Schakel provide the first in depth and rigorous analysis of regional and national elections between 1945 and 2011 across 13 West European countries. In the context of an increasingly 'multi-level' Europe, this book rightly puts the comparative study of regional elections at the forefront of analysis and as such it successfully addresses the 'national bias' that had come to dominate much of party and electoral research until recent years. It is a must read for scholars of electoral studies, parties and federal and regional studies."

Wilfried Swenden, School of Social and Political Science, University of Edinburgh, UK

"This impressive book is a veritable treasure trove of striking data, suggestive conceptualisation and thought-provoking analysis. Its publication surely represents a landmark moment in the development of comparative electoral analysis."

Richard Wyn Jones, Cardiff School of European Languages, Translation and Politics, Cardiff University, UK


Reviews from the book on Eastern Europe

"With incongruent electoral alliances in national and regional elections, continuous changes to electoral rules, the breathtaking success of newcomer parties, and the restless metamorphosis of the party systems, the analysis of regional elections in Central and Eastern Europe resembles an adventure trip into the wilderness of a jungle. This book is a detailed map, a compass, and a guidebook, all in one."

Daniel Bochsler, University of Copenhagen and Centre for Democracy Studies Aarau/University of Zurich

"This book is an ambitious effort to remedy the national bias in electoral research in Eastern Europe by putting the region at the center of analysis. Arjan Schakel has brought together leading country experts to analyze regional and national elections using a common framework. The result is a superbly conceived and executed study that is an invaluable resource for those interested in the territoriality of politics."

Gary Marks, Burton Craige distinguished professor, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill


Country excel files


Western Europe

Please consult the codebook before you start to read and use the data. Read the introduction, conclusion, and a sample chapter on the Netherlands. When you use a country excel file please cite the following publication:

Dandoy, Régis and Schakel, Arjan H. (eds) (2013) Regional and national elections in Western Europe. Territoriality of the vote in thirteen countries. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. [flyer] [link]


Country Country excel file Authors
1 Austria [excel] Marcelo Jenny
2 Belgium [excel] Régis Dandoy
3 Denmark [excel] Yosef Bhatti and Sune Welling Hansen
4 France [excel] Fabien Escalona, Simon Labouret and Mathieu Vieira
5 Germany [excel] Charlie Jeffery and Alia Middleton
6 Greece [excel] Stavros Skrinis
7 Italy [excel] Giulia Sandri and Emanuele Massetti
8 Netherlands [excel] Arjan H. Schakel
9 Norway [excel] Lawrence E. Rose and Tore Hansen
10 Spain [excel] Braulio Gómez and Laura Cabeza Perez
11 Sweden [excel] Linda Berg and Henrik E. Oscarsson
12 Switzerland [excel] Daniel Bochsler and Fabio Wasserfallen
13 United Kingdom [excel] Nicola McEwen



Eastern Europe

Please note that the files will be made available AFTER the publication of the book in January 2017 Please note that the files will be made available AFTER the publication of the book in January 2017

Please consult the codebook before you start to read and use the data. Read the introduction, conclusion, and a sample chapter on Russia. Download the dataset and syntax file (Stata) underlying the analyses presented in the introduction and conclusion where regional electoral dynamics are compared between Eastern and Western European countries. When you use a country excel file please cite the following publication:

Schakel, Arjan H. (ed) (2017) Regional and national elections in Eastern Europe. Territoriality of the vote in ten countries. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. [flyer] [link]


Country Country excel file Authors
14 Bosnia and Herzegovina [excel] John Husley and Dejan Stjepanović
15 Croatia [excel] Ivan Koprić, Daria Dubajić, Tijana Vukojičić Tomić, and Romea Manojlović
16 Czech Republic [excel] Michal Pink
17 Hungary [excel] Gábor Dobos and Réka Várnagy
18 Poland [excel] Wojciech Gagatek and Michał Kotnarowski
19 Romania [excel] Dragoş Dragoman and Bogdan Gheroghiţă
20 Russia [excel] Derek S. Hutcheson and Arjan H. Schakel
21 Serbia and Montenegro [excel] Christina I. Zuber and Jelena D៪nkić
22 Slovakia [excel] Marek Rybár and Peter Spáč
23 Turkey [excel] Emanuele Massetti and Sait Aksit